Feed Strategy - March 2020 - 34

34 ❙ FeedStrategy
MINERAL NUTRITION UPDATE
organism, respectively. Too much iron in the feed
boosts bacterial proliferation, and especially those of
pathogenic propensity, whereas too much free iron
leads to excessive oxidation.
Emphasis was also placed on early iron supplementation. Questions regarding dilemmas over one or two iron
injections, oral vs. injectable iron, and supplementation
timing were answered. In brief, it was recommended that
a single injection at one to three days after birth remains
the most potent form of iron supplementation. Some information regarding the interaction of iron with zinc was also
provided, with
emphasis placed
on maternal
zinc and iron
offspring. The
better the zinc
status of the
mother, the higher
the iron reserves
of newborn pigs
- something that tells us gestating sow nutrition is not as
simplistic as we once thought.

Update on copper nutrition
Copper absorption remains a topic little appreciated by
nutritionists. Few realize that copper is absorbed mostly
in the duodenum, a very short part of the small intestine.
And, its absorption is affected by high levels of zinc and
iron and the phytate compound (not the enzyme phytase.).
Once inside the organism, ceruloplasmin - a
copper-based protein - is responsible for copper blood
transport, and it is also an acute phase reactant protein
during infections.
This protein increases during an infection and is
responsible for removing iron from infected sites.
Again, we see the complex interactive nature of all
different minerals. As mentioned above, weaned

pigs in the U.S. receive a generous dosage of copper
along with zinc, for pharmacological - gut health -
reasons, something that is being progressively phased
out in the EU. This has to do with the excretion of zinc
and copper excesses in the field, something that was
discussed in detail and concerns all involved parties.

Questions we need to answer
As we progress our understanding of how trace
minerals such as iron, zinc and copper are being
absorbed and utilized, we need to continue
researching areas
we considered up
to now as firmly
5 advanced feed
established.
formulation secrets
For example,
about minerals:
what are the
https://bit.ly/37Q8MHO
true zinc
requirements of
sows now that
research has
shown benefits from additions of up to 500 ppm in
their feeds? All new research must establish requirements not only on traditional growth and efficiency
parameters, but also on health aspects using more
sensitive and relevant biomarkers.
The question of antibiotics reduction in animal production remains and the use of trace minerals like zinc
and copper, when properly utilized, can contribute to
preserving sensitive antibiotics for human use.
But, how can we work around the problem of
feeding excessive amounts of these minerals that will
not end up in the environment? Will novel forms of
zinc and copper play a greater role in the future and
what is the role of phytase among all these issues
concerning trace mineral nutrition?
Clearly, there is a bright future ahead for young
researchers. ■

Ioannis Mavromichalis, Ph.D., is an animal nutrition industry consultant. To contact Mavromichalis, email
imavromichalis@icloud.com.

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2003FSminerals.indd 34

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Feed Strategy - March 2020

Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of Feed Strategy - March 2020

Feed Strategy - March 2020
Contents
In the Mix
Industry Happenings
2020 Poultry Nutrition & Feed Survey: Poultry feed balances cost with market demands
Indian poultry to gain from food sector modernization
ASF, food trends, technology will leave their mark in 2020
Trustworthy dietary specifications for feed formulation
6 alternative energy sources for broilers
Vietnam’s feed industry sees market shifts, modernization
Mineral nutrition update for US pig feeds
Advertisers’ Index
Feed Strategy - March 2020 - Feed Strategy - March 2020
Feed Strategy - March 2020 - Cover2
Feed Strategy - March 2020 - Contents
Feed Strategy - March 2020 - In the Mix
Feed Strategy - March 2020 - Industry Happenings
Feed Strategy - March 2020 - 2020 Poultry Nutrition & Feed Survey: Poultry feed balances cost with market demands
Feed Strategy - March 2020 - 5
Feed Strategy - March 2020 - 6
Feed Strategy - March 2020 - 7
Feed Strategy - March 2020 - 8
Feed Strategy - March 2020 - 9
Feed Strategy - March 2020 - 10
Feed Strategy - March 2020 - 11
Feed Strategy - March 2020 - 12
Feed Strategy - March 2020 - 13
Feed Strategy - March 2020 - Indian poultry to gain from food sector modernization
Feed Strategy - March 2020 - 15
Feed Strategy - March 2020 - ASF, food trends, technology will leave their mark in 2020
Feed Strategy - March 2020 - 17
Feed Strategy - March 2020 - 18
Feed Strategy - March 2020 - 19
Feed Strategy - March 2020 - Trustworthy dietary specifications for feed formulation
Feed Strategy - March 2020 - 21
Feed Strategy - March 2020 - 22
Feed Strategy - March 2020 - 23
Feed Strategy - March 2020 - 6 alternative energy sources for broilers
Feed Strategy - March 2020 - 25
Feed Strategy - March 2020 - 26
Feed Strategy - March 2020 - 27
Feed Strategy - March 2020 - Vietnam’s feed industry sees market shifts, modernization
Feed Strategy - March 2020 - 29
Feed Strategy - March 2020 - 30
Feed Strategy - March 2020 - 31
Feed Strategy - March 2020 - Mineral nutrition update for US pig feeds
Feed Strategy - March 2020 - 33
Feed Strategy - March 2020 - 34
Feed Strategy - March 2020 - 35
Feed Strategy - March 2020 - 36
Feed Strategy - March 2020 - 37
Feed Strategy - March 2020 - 38
Feed Strategy - March 2020 - 39
Feed Strategy - March 2020 - Advertisers’ Index
Feed Strategy - March 2020 - Cover3
Feed Strategy - March 2020 - Cover4
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