Feed Strategy - March 2020 - 33

FeedStrategy ❙ 33

Growth response of weaned pigs challenged with
TGE when fed pharmacological doses of ZnO
Growth rate (g/day)

No extra ZnO

High levels of ZnO

Significant difference?

Week 1-2, post-infection

50

73

No

Weeks 3-4, post-infection

306

371

Yes

Overall

178

222

Yes

Adapted from Animine-European Federation of Animal Science 3rd Academy, 2019 (France).

Piglets fed high levels of ZnO coped better during a challenge of transmissible gastroenteritis (TGE).
A major starting point was the discussion about
what is and what is not meant by the terms bioavailability - something that continues to confuse nutritionists. In simple terms, bioavailability does not
refer to the portion of a mineral that is absorbed or
even stored, but that which is actually being used in
a physiological function.
In addition, it was stressed that major scientific
advances in recent decades came from the identification of intestinal mineral transporters that enable the
active absorption of trace minerals in ionic form. It has
also been elucidated that the oxidation state plays a
role in absorption. For example, in the case of copper,
the divalent form must be reduced to its monovalent
state before absorption.

Update of zinc nutrition
The role of zinc in pig nutrition is well known and
appreciated, with deficiency symptoms such as parakeratosis and decreased growth identified long ago.
What is now being realized is that zinc might
be the first limiting trace mineral, especially in
weaned pigs. This emphasizes the importance of
zinc not only on skin health and growth, but also on
boosting immunity with a potent anti-viral role. This
is accomplished not only indirectly by enabling the
immune system through the myriad enzymes and
components in which zinc plays a functional role,
but also as a direct anti-viral component.
The latter is becoming even more important as
global viral threats remain largely without solutions and nutrition once more is called upon to
offer a helping hand.
For example, in vitro tests with foot-and-mouth

and transmissible gastroenteritis viruses showed that
an excess of zinc inhibited critical components of the
viral replication system leading to substantial control
of the viruses. This might explain partially the beneficial effects of high zinc dosages in weaned pigs that
suffer frequently from gastrointestinal viral diseases.
This is in addition to the role zinc plays in the
gut level as far as microbial control is concerned.
There, scientific opinion leans toward not so much
its bacteriocidic properties, but in the amplification
of bacterial diversification that enables the establishment of a healthier ecosystem.

WILL NOVEL FORMS OF zinc
and copper play a greater role
in the future?
Today, in the U.S., weaned piglets are fed about
2,000 ppm zinc from zinc oxide, for about two weeks,
often in combination with high dosages of copper. For
older pigs, requirements are established at about 50-60
ppm zinc, but research on which this figure is based
is several decades old. This must be rectified as the
role of several factors, such as genetics, housing, novel
mineral sources, phytase and even housing have not
been taken into account.

Update on iron nutrition
The role of iron has been reinstated. It was stressed
that too much iron - and too much of it in free
form - are not beneficial for the pig and the

March 2020 ❙ www.FeedStrategy.com

2003FSminerals.indd 33

2/28/2020 1:53:54 PM


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Feed Strategy - March 2020

Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of Feed Strategy - March 2020

Feed Strategy - March 2020
Contents
In the Mix
Industry Happenings
2020 Poultry Nutrition & Feed Survey: Poultry feed balances cost with market demands
Indian poultry to gain from food sector modernization
ASF, food trends, technology will leave their mark in 2020
Trustworthy dietary specifications for feed formulation
6 alternative energy sources for broilers
Vietnam’s feed industry sees market shifts, modernization
Mineral nutrition update for US pig feeds
Advertisers’ Index
Feed Strategy - March 2020 - Feed Strategy - March 2020
Feed Strategy - March 2020 - Cover2
Feed Strategy - March 2020 - Contents
Feed Strategy - March 2020 - In the Mix
Feed Strategy - March 2020 - Industry Happenings
Feed Strategy - March 2020 - 2020 Poultry Nutrition & Feed Survey: Poultry feed balances cost with market demands
Feed Strategy - March 2020 - 5
Feed Strategy - March 2020 - 6
Feed Strategy - March 2020 - 7
Feed Strategy - March 2020 - 8
Feed Strategy - March 2020 - 9
Feed Strategy - March 2020 - 10
Feed Strategy - March 2020 - 11
Feed Strategy - March 2020 - 12
Feed Strategy - March 2020 - 13
Feed Strategy - March 2020 - Indian poultry to gain from food sector modernization
Feed Strategy - March 2020 - 15
Feed Strategy - March 2020 - ASF, food trends, technology will leave their mark in 2020
Feed Strategy - March 2020 - 17
Feed Strategy - March 2020 - 18
Feed Strategy - March 2020 - 19
Feed Strategy - March 2020 - Trustworthy dietary specifications for feed formulation
Feed Strategy - March 2020 - 21
Feed Strategy - March 2020 - 22
Feed Strategy - March 2020 - 23
Feed Strategy - March 2020 - 6 alternative energy sources for broilers
Feed Strategy - March 2020 - 25
Feed Strategy - March 2020 - 26
Feed Strategy - March 2020 - 27
Feed Strategy - March 2020 - Vietnam’s feed industry sees market shifts, modernization
Feed Strategy - March 2020 - 29
Feed Strategy - March 2020 - 30
Feed Strategy - March 2020 - 31
Feed Strategy - March 2020 - Mineral nutrition update for US pig feeds
Feed Strategy - March 2020 - 33
Feed Strategy - March 2020 - 34
Feed Strategy - March 2020 - 35
Feed Strategy - March 2020 - 36
Feed Strategy - March 2020 - 37
Feed Strategy - March 2020 - 38
Feed Strategy - March 2020 - 39
Feed Strategy - March 2020 - Advertisers’ Index
Feed Strategy - March 2020 - Cover3
Feed Strategy - March 2020 - Cover4
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