Feed Strategy - December 2019 - 33

FeedStrategy ❙ 33

OPTIMAL DAIRY COW NUTRITION
nitrogen can then be utilized as an NPN
source to generate microbial protein.
As discussed, both energy and protein
can each be subdivided into two categories and good rations will use an optimal
mix of those categories. Microbial protein is the most costeffective protein that a cow can utilize, thus maximizing
its production as a proportion of the protein supplied is a

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All CHO fermented within the rumen must pass
through pyruvate before they are converted to their ultimate VFA end-product. Structural CHO tend to result in
the production of acetate and butyrate, which are lipogenic in nature and are then converted to acetyl CoA in
the liver, which then enters the Kreb's Cycle. Conversely,
full fermentation of non-structural CHO leads to the
production of propionate, which is gluconeogenic and
supplies around 50% of the animal's glucose requirement.
The production of VFA drives a major portion of the
energy within a ration. However, it will also impact milk
composition as acetate drives milk fat. Increasing the efficiency with which dietary structural CHO are used can
often yield a subsequent increment in milk fat.

Microbial protein
Dietary protein is linked to energy and, like energy, can
be subdivided into two categories: that which is susceptible to, and that which escapes, degradation in the rumen.
Microbes can hydrolyze proteins into small peptides
and amino acids, some of which are used to generate
organic acids, ammonia or carbon dioxide. Certain
microbes, particularly cellulolytic bacteria, can fix nonprotein nitrogen (NPN) and assimilate it into their body
protein. This allows the ruminant to be able to utilize
nitrogen sources nonruminants cannot.
Bacterial ureases hydrolyze urea into ammonia and,
providing sufficient energy sources are available, use it to
generate microbial protein.
Ammonia is a key intermediate in nitrogen metabolism in the rumen and low levels result in slow microbial
growth and poor CHO breakdown. In cases of nitrogen
deficit, ammonia absorbed across the rumen wall may be
converted to urea via the ornithine cycle in the liver and
returned to the rumen via saliva. This recycling allows
some control over rumen ammonia levels and recycled
December 2019 ❙ www.FeedStrategy.com

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Feed Strategy - December 2019

Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of Feed Strategy - December 2019

Feed Strategy - December 2019
Contents
In the Mix
Industry Happenings
Mar-Jac Poultry feed mill built for capacity, expansion
A feed manufacturer’s watchlist for 2020
What feed formulators need to know about organic rations
Marketing nutrition by writing the article
Updating thinking on bioactive fatty acids in pig nutrition
Examining the components of optimal dairy cow nutrition
4 programs for the feed industry at 2020 IPPE
Advertisers’ Index
Feed Strategy - December 2019 - CT1
Feed Strategy - December 2019 - CT2
Feed Strategy - December 2019 - Feed Strategy - December 2019
Feed Strategy - December 2019 - Cover2
Feed Strategy - December 2019 - Contents
Feed Strategy - December 2019 - In the Mix
Feed Strategy - December 2019 - Industry Happenings
Feed Strategy - December 2019 - Mar-Jac Poultry feed mill built for capacity, expansion
Feed Strategy - December 2019 - 5
Feed Strategy - December 2019 - 6
Feed Strategy - December 2019 - 7
Feed Strategy - December 2019 - 8
Feed Strategy - December 2019 - 9
Feed Strategy - December 2019 - 10
Feed Strategy - December 2019 - 11
Feed Strategy - December 2019 - 12
Feed Strategy - December 2019 - 13
Feed Strategy - December 2019 - A feed manufacturer’s watchlist for 2020
Feed Strategy - December 2019 - 15
Feed Strategy - December 2019 - 16
Feed Strategy - December 2019 - 17
Feed Strategy - December 2019 - What feed formulators need to know about organic rations
Feed Strategy - December 2019 - 19
Feed Strategy - December 2019 - 20
Feed Strategy - December 2019 - 21
Feed Strategy - December 2019 - Marketing nutrition by writing the article
Feed Strategy - December 2019 - 23
Feed Strategy - December 2019 - Updating thinking on bioactive fatty acids in pig nutrition
Feed Strategy - December 2019 - 25
Feed Strategy - December 2019 - 26
Feed Strategy - December 2019 - 27
Feed Strategy - December 2019 - 28
Feed Strategy - December 2019 - 29
Feed Strategy - December 2019 - Examining the components of optimal dairy cow nutrition
Feed Strategy - December 2019 - 31
Feed Strategy - December 2019 - 32
Feed Strategy - December 2019 - 33
Feed Strategy - December 2019 - 34
Feed Strategy - December 2019 - 35
Feed Strategy - December 2019 - 36
Feed Strategy - December 2019 - 37
Feed Strategy - December 2019 - 4 programs for the feed industry at 2020 IPPE
Feed Strategy - December 2019 - 39
Feed Strategy - December 2019 - Advertisers’ Index
Feed Strategy - December 2019 - Cover3
Feed Strategy - December 2019 - Cover4
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