Feed Strategy - November 2019 - 9

FeedStrategy ❙ 9

Environmental effects on mycotoxins
Mycotoxin

Increased danger

Decreased danger

Aflatoxins

Heat (>25°C) and drought; rain
at harvest and dry-down

Cool temperatures (<20°C);
dry weather helps dry-down and storage

Deoxyinvalenol

Warm weather; rain ambiguous
(i.e., low or high can be dangerous)

Cool <10 °C and hot weather >32 °C safer

Fumonisins

Warm weather; dry at grain fill is a risk but Cool temperatures and low rain
rain/humidity dangerous at other times
are safer, apart from at grain fill

Adapted from R.R.M. Paterson, N. Lima, and Food Research International

This table shows how temperature, humidity and rainfall affect mycotoxin risks.
A and Fusarium toxins, such as deoxynivalenol.
Since temperature and humidity are important
parameters for fungal growth, climate change is anticipated to impact the presence of mycotoxins.

Climate change
Climatic conditions, including temperature, rainfall,
carbon dioxide level and humidity, affect fungal
behavior and mycotoxin production. In general,
warmer and wetter weather leads to more mold growth
and, hence, greater mycotoxin production. Therefore,
if the temperature increases in cool or temperate
climates, those countries may become more liable to
aflatoxins.
Tropical countries may become too inhospitable
for conventional fungal growth and mycotoxin production. Currently cold regions may become liable to
temperate problems concerning ochratoxin A, patulin
and Fusarium toxins, e.g. deoxynivalenol.

EU predictions
The European Food Standards Agency (EFSA) has
looked at how climate forecasts may affect mycotoxin
occurrences across Europe. They modeled 2 degrees
Celsius and 5 degrees Celsius increases in global
temperatures - proposed by the Intergovernmental
Panel on Climate Change. With a two-degree increase,

they stated that there was a high risk of maize contaminating aflatoxin levels above EU regulatory limits, but
aflatoxins would be very low in wheat and absent in rice.
The predictions also showed a reduction in season
length and an advance in flowering and harvest dates
for all the crops considered. This could allow an
enlargement of the crop growing areas toward the
north of the EU, mainly for corn and rice, because
earlier ripening would then be possible in these areas.
However, in the 5-degree temperature increase,
levels of aflatoxin contamination are predicted to
be lower, but risks were expected in a wider area,
expanding toward northern EU countries.

Adapting molds
As with all organisms, mold will adapt to changing
conditions in order to increase their chances of
survival. The table shows how temperature, humidity
and rainfall affect mycotoxin risks. Slightly elevated
carbon dioxide concentrations - in conjunction with
temperature and water availability - may also stimulate growth of some mycotoxigenic species, especially
under water stress.
Warmer weather, heat waves, greater precipitation
and drought will have various impacts, depending on
which regions of the world and mycotoxin systems
are considered. Climatic conditions post-harvest will

Exotoxins an undervalued potential feed hazard: https://bit.ly/31RoEaJ

November 2019 ❙ www.FeedStrategy.com


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Feed Strategy - November 2019

Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of Feed Strategy - November 2019

Feed Strategy - November 2019
Contents
In the Mix
FeedStrategy.com
Climate change and animal feed: mycotoxin risk mitigation
How to adapt to the changing mycotoxin landscape
Scientists seek new ways to combat spread of mycotoxins
Feed additives that will succeed in 2020 and beyond
Marketing nutrition by extending credit
More feed, fewer mills: feed industry consolidation
How to target protein content in late-lactation cow diets
Critical junctures in early chick nutrition confi rmed
How pelleting influences particle size in animal feed
Products
Advertisers’ Index
Feed Strategy - November 2019 - CT1
Feed Strategy - November 2019 - CT2
Feed Strategy - November 2019 - Feed Strategy - November 2019
Feed Strategy - November 2019 - Cover2
Feed Strategy - November 2019 - CT3
Feed Strategy - November 2019 - CT4
Feed Strategy - November 2019 - Contents
Feed Strategy - November 2019 - In the Mix
Feed Strategy - November 2019 - FeedStrategy.com
Feed Strategy - November 2019 - Climate change and animal feed: mycotoxin risk mitigation
Feed Strategy - November 2019 - 5
Feed Strategy - November 2019 - 6
Feed Strategy - November 2019 - 7
Feed Strategy - November 2019 - How to adapt to the changing mycotoxin landscape
Feed Strategy - November 2019 - 9
Feed Strategy - November 2019 - 10
Feed Strategy - November 2019 - 11
Feed Strategy - November 2019 - Scientists seek new ways to combat spread of mycotoxins
Feed Strategy - November 2019 - 13
Feed Strategy - November 2019 - 14
Feed Strategy - November 2019 - 15
Feed Strategy - November 2019 - Feed additives that will succeed in 2020 and beyond
Feed Strategy - November 2019 - 17
Feed Strategy - November 2019 - 18
Feed Strategy - November 2019 - 19
Feed Strategy - November 2019 - 20
Feed Strategy - November 2019 - 21
Feed Strategy - November 2019 - Marketing nutrition by extending credit
Feed Strategy - November 2019 - 23
Feed Strategy - November 2019 - More feed, fewer mills: feed industry consolidation
Feed Strategy - November 2019 - 25
Feed Strategy - November 2019 - 26
Feed Strategy - November 2019 - 27
Feed Strategy - November 2019 - How to target protein content in late-lactation cow diets
Feed Strategy - November 2019 - 29
Feed Strategy - November 2019 - 30
Feed Strategy - November 2019 - Critical junctures in early chick nutrition confi rmed
Feed Strategy - November 2019 - 32
Feed Strategy - November 2019 - 33
Feed Strategy - November 2019 - How pelleting influences particle size in animal feed
Feed Strategy - November 2019 - 35
Feed Strategy - November 2019 - 36
Feed Strategy - November 2019 - 37
Feed Strategy - November 2019 - 38
Feed Strategy - November 2019 - Products
Feed Strategy - November 2019 - Advertisers’ Index
Feed Strategy - November 2019 - Cover3
Feed Strategy - November 2019 - Cover4
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