Feed Strategy - October 2019 - 12

12 ❙ FeedStrategy
FORAGE IN RUMINANT RATIONS
digestion, include the availability to
microbes of other nutrients (nitrogen,
sulfur) and soluble carbohydrates.

Fiber degradation

With added pressure over land use and maximizing energy from
forage, fiber utilization is becoming increasingly important in ruminant
rations. Ron Sumners | Fotolia.com
accretion. High-fiber, forage diets
encourage the growth of acetateproducing bacterial species resulting
in a typical molar proportions of
70:20:10 acetate:propionate:butyrate.

Factors affecting
fiber utilization
The challenge of using more forage
while maintaining the same nutrient
density is common. Having more forage
in the diet is beneficial for rumen function, but the fiber fraction still has to be
fermented in the rumen so that its nutritive value benefits the cow.
One of the most variable factors
in forage is fiber digestibility that

can vary between 30% for very
poor-quality forages up to 85% for
the better ones. These variations
are linked to forage maturity, plant
tissue type and chemical composition of the cell wall. Nutritional
models attempt to account for this
variability by using the parameters
neutral- and acid-detergent fiber
(NDF and ADF, respectively), as
well as acid detergent lignin (ADL).
Lignin is not able to be broken
down under rumen conditions and
interaction with other cell wall
carbohydrates, such as cellulose and
hemicellulose, reduces fiber digestion. Other factors affecting fiber

Degradation of fiber can be impaired
by dietary excess of soluble carbohydrates, such as starch. Three potential mechanisms are often cited for
this effect: 1) preferential use of the
soluble carbohydrate; 2) decrease in
pH as a result of rapid fermentation
of soluble carbohydrates; 3) shift in
rumen microflora to favoring those
that digest soluble carbohydrates.
Level and type of dietary fat
supplementation also affect ruminal
fiber digestion with an inhibitory
effect on microbial activity. It is
well established that long-chain
polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA)
are toxic to rumen microbes and
are thus biohydrogenated to more
benign saturated fats with a variety
of intermediates also generated.
Fiber degradation can be severely
restricted above certain levels of
dietary fat. As mentioned previously,
fibrous feeds affect rumen fill and
are retained in the rumen longer than
their rapidly fermentable counterparts. This longer ruminal residence
is required to give microbes time
to digest the cell wall material, and
fiber digestion can be impaired by
anything that affects rumen transit
time. For example, higher feeding
rates leading to increased DMI tend
to result in reduced ruminal residence time and can negatively impact
ruminal fiber digestion.
www.FeedStrategy.com ❙ October 2019


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Feed Strategy - October 2019

Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of Feed Strategy - October 2019

Feed Strategy - October 2019
Contents
In the Mix
Industry Happenings
Consumers, weather, trade sway 2019 dairy feed volumes
Tips for maximizing forage in ruminant rations
How to replace corn with wheat in modern animal diets
Marketing nutrition by following trends
What AGPs can teach us about growth promotion
Broad review of research presented during 2019 ESPN
Grinding: benefits of particle size modifications
Products
Advertisers’ Index
Feed Strategy - October 2019 - CT1
Feed Strategy - October 2019 - CT2
Feed Strategy - October 2019 - Feed Strategy - October 2019
Feed Strategy - October 2019 - Cover2
Feed Strategy - October 2019 - CT3
Feed Strategy - October 2019 - CT4
Feed Strategy - October 2019 - Contents
Feed Strategy - October 2019 - In the Mix
Feed Strategy - October 2019 - Industry Happenings
Feed Strategy - October 2019 - Consumers, weather, trade sway 2019 dairy feed volumes
Feed Strategy - October 2019 - 5
Feed Strategy - October 2019 - 6
Feed Strategy - October 2019 - 7
Feed Strategy - October 2019 - 8
Feed Strategy - October 2019 - 9
Feed Strategy - October 2019 - Tips for maximizing forage in ruminant rations
Feed Strategy - October 2019 - 11
Feed Strategy - October 2019 - 12
Feed Strategy - October 2019 - 13
Feed Strategy - October 2019 - 14
Feed Strategy - October 2019 - 15
Feed Strategy - October 2019 - How to replace corn with wheat in modern animal diets
Feed Strategy - October 2019 - 17
Feed Strategy - October 2019 - 18
Feed Strategy - October 2019 - 19
Feed Strategy - October 2019 - 20
Feed Strategy - October 2019 - 21
Feed Strategy - October 2019 - Marketing nutrition by following trends
Feed Strategy - October 2019 - 23
Feed Strategy - October 2019 - What AGPs can teach us about growth promotion
Feed Strategy - October 2019 - 25
Feed Strategy - October 2019 - 26
Feed Strategy - October 2019 - 27
Feed Strategy - October 2019 - Broad review of research presented during 2019 ESPN
Feed Strategy - October 2019 - 29
Feed Strategy - October 2019 - 30
Feed Strategy - October 2019 - 31
Feed Strategy - October 2019 - Grinding: benefits of particle size modifications
Feed Strategy - October 2019 - 33
Feed Strategy - October 2019 - 34
Feed Strategy - October 2019 - 35
Feed Strategy - October 2019 - 36
Feed Strategy - October 2019 - 37
Feed Strategy - October 2019 - Products
Feed Strategy - October 2019 - 39
Feed Strategy - October 2019 - Advertisers’ Index
Feed Strategy - October 2019 - Cover3
Feed Strategy - October 2019 - Cover4
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