Feed Strategy - June 2019 - 34

34 ❙ FeedStrategy
PIG FEED FORMULATION
Vitamins and trace minerals
This is a sensitive area, where
changes either way can provide
significant savings in feed cost
and/or animal performance.
Here, it is not so much the form
of describing the presence of
each nutrient, but rather its actual
concentration. Nevertheless,
nutrient availability can be utilized
in lowering overall feed specifications. The availability of vitamins
is quite different among certain
sources and this too should be
taken into account when these
premixes are designed. One clear
example is sufficient to illustrate
the issue. One form of copper
oxide is totally unavailable to pigs,
whereas a similar copper oxide is
highly available.

Fiber
Fiber is undesirable in most
formulas because it reduces energy
density and nutrient digestibility.
However, functional fibers are
beneficial in improving animal
gastrointestinal health. Up to this
time, there has not been an agreement on which is the best term to
describe the fiber fraction in feed.
Therefore, the term "crude fiber"
continues to be the base on which
pig ingredients are evaluated.
Other forms, more complex, exist,
but values for many pig ingredients are yet to be determined.
Most importantly, fiber
dietary specifications (minimum
and maximum values) for pig

Metabolizable and net energy
concentration in pig feed ingredients
Feedstuff

ME MJ/kg

NE MJ/kg

ME/NE %

Corn

13.9

11.1

125

Wheat

13.4

10.5

128

Peas

13.2

9.7

136

Rapeseed meal

10.6

6.3

168

8.8

6.3

140

Wheat bran
Source: Ioannis Mavromichalis, Ph.D

The conversion of metabolizable energy to net energy is similar when
it comes to common cereals, such as corn and wheat, and thus it
makes little difference which system is used in formulating feeds based
on these ingredients. When it comes to less conventional ingredients,
however, the disparity is very large.
formulas, other than those of
"crude fiber," are very difficult
to encounter in publicly available
literature. All these imply that
the term "crude fiber" is the best
option for the present time, when
all things practical are considered. Nevertheless, the nutrition
community is gradually becoming
accustomed to using terms such as
insoluble and fermentable fibers,
albeit we are still a long way from
establishing requirements, yet
alone practical recommendations.

Nutrient specifications
Table values such as those provided
by scientific or commercial entities
are quite common in setting target
values for the above nutrients. While
these examples provide an excellent starting base, modifications are
required to ensure specifications
meet actual animal needs.
Because of the generic form
of such table values, not all
cases can be covered. It is actual
productive performance that
should be used as a guideline
www.WATTAgNet.com ❙ June 2019


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Feed Strategy - June 2019

Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of Feed Strategy - June 2019

Feed Strategy - June 2019
Contents
In the Mix
Industry Happenings
2019 world feed production trends: growth continues worldwide
What the US poultry industry needs to know about ASF
Blockchain technology has big potential beyond transparency
Digitized dairy: Ag tech sparks changes for feed’s future
Marketing nutrition through local distributors
How to adjust sow feeds for summer heat stress
VIV Turkey to highlight poultry meat, egg safety
Simple concepts at the basis of pig feed formulation
New technology uses data for greater energy efficiency, feed quality
Advertisers’ Index
Feed Strategy - June 2019 - CT1
Feed Strategy - June 2019 - CT2
Feed Strategy - June 2019 - Feed Strategy - June 2019
Feed Strategy - June 2019 - Cover2
Feed Strategy - June 2019 - CT3
Feed Strategy - June 2019 - CT4
Feed Strategy - June 2019 - Contents
Feed Strategy - June 2019 - In the Mix
Feed Strategy - June 2019 - Industry Happenings
Feed Strategy - June 2019 - 2019 world feed production trends: growth continues worldwide
Feed Strategy - June 2019 - 5
Feed Strategy - June 2019 - 6
Feed Strategy - June 2019 - 7
Feed Strategy - June 2019 - 8
Feed Strategy - June 2019 - 9
Feed Strategy - June 2019 - 10
Feed Strategy - June 2019 - 11
Feed Strategy - June 2019 - What the US poultry industry needs to know about ASF
Feed Strategy - June 2019 - 13
Feed Strategy - June 2019 - 14
Feed Strategy - June 2019 - 15
Feed Strategy - June 2019 - 16
Feed Strategy - June 2019 - 17
Feed Strategy - June 2019 - Blockchain technology has big potential beyond transparency
Feed Strategy - June 2019 - 19
Feed Strategy - June 2019 - 20
Feed Strategy - June 2019 - 21
Feed Strategy - June 2019 - Digitized dairy: Ag tech sparks changes for feed’s future
Feed Strategy - June 2019 - 23
Feed Strategy - June 2019 - 24
Feed Strategy - June 2019 - 25
Feed Strategy - June 2019 - Marketing nutrition through local distributors
Feed Strategy - June 2019 - 27
Feed Strategy - June 2019 - How to adjust sow feeds for summer heat stress
Feed Strategy - June 2019 - 29
Feed Strategy - June 2019 - 30
Feed Strategy - June 2019 - VIV Turkey to highlight poultry meat, egg safety
Feed Strategy - June 2019 - Simple concepts at the basis of pig feed formulation
Feed Strategy - June 2019 - 33
Feed Strategy - June 2019 - 34
Feed Strategy - June 2019 - 35
Feed Strategy - June 2019 - New technology uses data for greater energy efficiency, feed quality
Feed Strategy - June 2019 - 37
Feed Strategy - June 2019 - 38
Feed Strategy - June 2019 - 39
Feed Strategy - June 2019 - Advertisers’ Index
Feed Strategy - June 2019 - Cover3
Feed Strategy - June 2019 - Cover4
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