Feed Strategy - February 2018 - 11

FeedStrategy ❙ 11

1

Palm kernel meal 

The rapid growth of palm oil production in Asia,
Australia, South America and Africa has led to
tremendous quantities of palm kernel meal being available for all types of livestock. Not a protein-rich ingredient (less than 18 percent crude protein), palm kernel
meal remains an interesting ingredient because it can
contribute to significant cost savings. It is poor in lysine
and methionine, with average digestibility values, but
it contains sufficient energy to constitute a good part of
the total dietary protein fraction. It is also relatively high
in crude fiber (up to 20 percent). In many aspects, palm
kernel meal can be compared to corn gluten feed. It is
speculated that any adverse effects of palm kernel meal
observed can be due to its grittiness and overall physical quality aspects, and not due to its nutrient profile. As

possible to reduce the negative effects by neutralizing
it through the addition of certain iron salts. Low- or
no-gossypol cultivars are also available, yielding meals
that are tolerated well by broilers. A gradual introduction into feed formulas is recommended. On the other
hand, whole cottonseeds are often used as a common
vehicle for supplying protein and oil. 

3

Sunflower 

Sunflowers are grown mostly in cold climates for
their seeds. They are used for oil production or as
a confectionary item. There are distinct varieties for each
use because confectionary seeds are not rich enough to be
used for oil production. Sunflower meal is the residual matter after oil extraction, usually by the use of solvents (as in
the case of soybeans), but also by hydraulic pressure (old
method). The latter method produces
sunflower meal rich in residual oil, and
this should be taken into account during feed formulation. All animals will
readily consume diets based on sunflower meal. This is due to the fact that
sunflower meal contains a small amount
of sugars, which give a sweet taste to feeds. Sunflowers
contain no significant anti-nutritional factors, in contrast to
other protein sources such as soybean meal that contains a
plethora of such compounds. Nevertheless, the use of sunflower meal in diets is restricted by its high concentration in
crude fiber, something that is not always as undesirable or
negative as it has been considered up to recent times. 

IN CONTRAST TO OTHER
protein sources, sunflowers contain
no significant anti-nutritional factors.
such, high quality palm kernel meal can be used relatively
freely, within constrains imposed by its limited nutrient
profile. As is the norm, diets for young animals should
contain limited quantities of ingredients that are likely to
cause digestive upsets, whereas on the other hand, such
diets are often fortified with functional fibers. 

Spinkle | iStock

2

Cottonseed meal 

A byproduct of the extraction of oil from cotton seeds, this protein source is not often available for poultry and pig feeds due to competition from
ruminant feeds - especially dairy cattle feeds, something that increases its price. Cottonseed meal contains
about 40 percent crude protein, of moderate digestibility, whereas the major anti-nutritional factor is gossypol. Broilers can withstand much higher levels of gossypol compared with layers, but the usually high fiber
concentration (15 percent) in cottonseed meal will pose
an upper limit in formulation; the same is possible with
young versus mature pigs. In regards to gossypol, it is

February 2018 ❙ www.WATTAgNet.com

4

Rapeseed 

Rapeseed (Brassica napus and Brassica campestris), a member of the same family as mustard, cabbage and turnips, is a major oil-yielding crop,
being third after soybeans and palm. It is cultivated in
regions with colder climates that are usually unsuitable
for soybeans. Regular varieties of rapeseed contain high
levels of anti-nutritional factors that cause problems in
all animals. These factors include glucosinolates (goitrogenic), erucic acid (toxic), tannins, sinapine, phytic acid and mucilage. The most important for animal
production is glucosinolates that reduce feed palatability


http://www.WATTAgNet.com

Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of Feed Strategy - February 2018

Feed Strategy - February 2018
Contents
Livestock premixes evolve to meet consumer demands
6 alternative protein sources to soybean meal
Insect proteins inch toward approval for EU animal feed
How to improve the effi ciency of corn-soy poultry diets
5 feeding strategies to combat piglet diarrhea
Basics of NIRS forage and feed analysis for dairy feed
Feed formulation software enhances effi ciency, profi ts
VICTAM Asia to showcase latest in feed, food industries
In the Mix
Products
Marketplace
Advertisers’ Index
Feed Strategy - February 2018 - CT1
Feed Strategy - February 2018 - CT2
Feed Strategy - February 2018 - Feed Strategy - February 2018
Feed Strategy - February 2018 - Cover2
Feed Strategy - February 2018 - Contents
Feed Strategy - February 2018 - In the Mix
Feed Strategy - February 2018 - 3
Feed Strategy - February 2018 - 4
Feed Strategy - February 2018 - 5
Feed Strategy - February 2018 - Livestock premixes evolve to meet consumer demands
Feed Strategy - February 2018 - 7
Feed Strategy - February 2018 - 8
Feed Strategy - February 2018 - 9
Feed Strategy - February 2018 - 6 alternative protein sources to soybean meal
Feed Strategy - February 2018 - 11
Feed Strategy - February 2018 - 12
Feed Strategy - February 2018 - 13
Feed Strategy - February 2018 - 14
Feed Strategy - February 2018 - 15
Feed Strategy - February 2018 - Insect proteins inch toward approval for EU animal feed
Feed Strategy - February 2018 - 17
Feed Strategy - February 2018 - 18
Feed Strategy - February 2018 - 19
Feed Strategy - February 2018 - How to improve the effi ciency of corn-soy poultry diets
Feed Strategy - February 2018 - 21
Feed Strategy - February 2018 - 22
Feed Strategy - February 2018 - 23
Feed Strategy - February 2018 - 24
Feed Strategy - February 2018 - 25
Feed Strategy - February 2018 - 5 feeding strategies to combat piglet diarrhea
Feed Strategy - February 2018 - 27
Feed Strategy - February 2018 - 28
Feed Strategy - February 2018 - 29
Feed Strategy - February 2018 - Basics of NIRS forage and feed analysis for dairy feed
Feed Strategy - February 2018 - 31
Feed Strategy - February 2018 - 32
Feed Strategy - February 2018 - 33
Feed Strategy - February 2018 - 34
Feed Strategy - February 2018 - 35
Feed Strategy - February 2018 - Feed formulation software enhances effi ciency, profi ts
Feed Strategy - February 2018 - 37
Feed Strategy - February 2018 - 38
Feed Strategy - February 2018 - 39
Feed Strategy - February 2018 - VICTAM Asia to showcase latest in feed, food industries
Feed Strategy - February 2018 - 41
Feed Strategy - February 2018 - Products
Feed Strategy - February 2018 - 43
Feed Strategy - February 2018 - Advertisers’ Index
Feed Strategy - February 2018 - Cover3
Feed Strategy - February 2018 - Cover4
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